Statement I Anticyclone, which is a high pressure wind system, does not bring about significant change in weather condition. The two most well- understood and significant winds for climate and human activities are, The trade winds are those blowing from the, Therefore, these are confined to a region between, This deflection in their ideally expected north-south direction is explained on the basis of, The trade winds from two hemispheres meet at the equator, and. Ex: The Foehn wind brings snowfall in Alps that will bring tourists for skiing. Therefore, over the land the air rises giving rise to a low pressure area, whereas the sea is relatively cool and the pressure over sea is relatively high. Such winds are local in extent and are confined to the lowest levels of the troposphere. 2 Year Validity == Validity of the Download links (both Static & Current Affairs) is 2 Years from the date of purchase. Get the complete list of Major Local winds around the globe for UPSC Civil Services Exam. föhn wind (foehn wind) Generic term for warm, dry winds in the lee of a mountain range.It was originally used in the European Alps. breeze is a wind with a speed of from 7 to 11 kilometers per hour, Fresh breezeis a wind with a speed of from 31 to 39 kilometers per hour and Galeis a wind with a speed of from 63 to 74 kilometers per hour. The cool air, of the high plateaus and ice fields draining into the valley is called katabatic wind. During the night the slopes get cooled and the dense air descends into the valley as the mountain wind. The Arabic name for a violent wind which raises sandstorms, especially in. Chinook winds are Föehn winds that form when moist air from the Pacific Oceans rises up against the Western Rocky Mountains, cools down and cause precipitation. This cell is called the, These three cells set the pattern for the. Their velocity increases southward and they become stormy. As the windward side takes away whatever moisture there is in the incoming wind in the form of orographic precipitation, the air that descends on the leeward side is dry and warm (Katabatic Wind). Such appearance of warm water off the coast of Peru is known as the El Nino. A katabatic wind (named from the Greek word κατάβασις katabasis, meaning "descending") is a drainage wind, a wind that carries high-density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity. The pressure gradient is from the land to the sea and hence land breeze results. The eastern parts of the trade winds associated with the cool ocean currents are drier and more stable than the western parts of the ocean. Santa Ana winds: southern California; Shamal: a summer northwesterly wind blowing over Iraq and the Persian Gulf states; Simoom: strong, dry, desert wind that blows in the Sahara, Israel, Jordan, Syria, and the desert of Arabia The local winds are an important part of World geography. A wind is named after the direction from which it blows, e.g. They flow as the north-eastern trades in the northern hemisphere and the south-eastern trades in the southern hemisphere. Therefore, over the land, the air rises giving rise to a low-pressure area, whereas the sea is relatively cool and the pressure oversea is relatively high. During the night the slopes get cooled and the dense air descends into the valley as the mountain wind. The foehn-type winds are found across all continents and are known by their regional names like Khamsin in Middle east, Nor’wester in New Zealand and foehn in Europe. These winds now approach the Asian landmass as south-west monsoons. Over elevated surfaces, heating of the ground exceeds the heating of the surrounding air at the same altitude above sea level, creating an associated thermal low over the terrain and enhancing any thermal lows that would have otherwise existed, and changing the wind circulation of the region. CLIMATOLOGY Topics covered Climate and weather Evolution of atmosphere Composition of atmosphere Air Dust particle Green House Gases Structure of Atmosphere Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Exosphere Insolation and terrestrial radiation Variability of insolation at the surface of the Earth Albedo Heat Budget Temperature Distribution on the Earth Controlling factors … UPSC Civil Services Examination Geography Topic: Types of Wind Wind can be described as the movement of air from the high-pressure area to the low-pressure area. It brings blizzards into southern France. Such winds are sometimes also called fall winds; the spelling catabatic winds is also used. Nor'wester: wind that brings rain to the West Coast, and warm dry winds to the East Coast of New Zealand's South Island, caused by the moist prevailing winds being uplifted over the Southern Alps, often accompanied by a distinctive arched cloud pattern; Pampero (Argentina): very strong wind which blows in … In the plains of northern India and Pakistan, sometimes a very hot and dry wind blows from the west in the months of, The temperature of the wind varies between 15°C and 20°C. WIND SYSTEMS. On Earth surface, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. (El-Nino in detail later), Seasonal winds: These winds change their direction in different seasons. Air under the influence of both the pressure gradient force and Coriolis force tends to move parallel to isobars in conditions where friction is low (1000 meters above the surface of the Earth) and isobars are straight. While crossing the equator, these winds get deflected to their right under the effect of Coriolis force. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. The westerlies are the winds blowing from the. Down below near the land surface the air flows towards the equator as the easterlies. Atmosphere and Winds Questions and Answers Pdf for Class 5, Class 6, Class 7, Class 8, Class 9, Class 10, Class 11, Class 12 chapter wise pdf free download for all competitive exams. The El Nino event is closely associated with the pressure changes in the Central Pacific and Australia. The easterlies from either side of the equator converge in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). ; Wind speed is measured by an instrument called Anemometer. the wind blowing from the west is called westerly. The moisture in these winds, while crossing the mountain ranges condenses and precipitate. The westerlies of the southern hemisphere are stronger and persistent due to the vast expanse of water, while those of the northern hemisphere is irregular because of the uneven relief of vast land-masses. Foehn wind is a warm, dry and down-slope wind occurring on the leeward side of a mountain as a result of the adiabatic warming of the air descending after precipitating on the windward slope of the mountain. north-west European coasts) because they pick up much moisture while passing over the vast stretches of the oceans. It is channeled through the Rhine valley. They are initiated when mid- latitude cyclones pass to the southwest of the Alps. Local differences of temperature and pressure produce local winds. Tiếng Việt: Gió Lào là gió sau khi vượt qua núi đã trở nên khô và nóng This phenomenon is closely monitored and is used for long range forecasting in major parts of the world. These winds are more common on the northern side of Alps in Switzerland and with the arrival of these winds, there is a rapid rise in temperature. Such winds are local in extent and are confined to the lowest levels of the troposphere. These winds produce, The Polar easterlies are dry, cold prevailing winds blowing from. NOTES WINDS Light breeze is a wind with a speed of from 7 to 11 kilometers per hour, Fresh breeze is a wind with a speed of from 31 to 39 kilometers per hour and Gale is a wind with a speed of from 63 to 74 kilometers per hour.. Due to rotation of the earth, in the Northern hemisphere winds are deflected to their right and in Southern hemisphere to their left. Warming and cooling of the Pacific Ocean is most important in terms of general atmospheric circulation. A katabatic wind (named from the Greek word κατάβασις katabasis, meaning "descending") is a drainage wind, a wind that carries high-density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity. UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. Because of the dominance of the land in the northern hemisphere, the westerlies become more complex and complicated and become less effective during the summer seasons and more vigorous during the winter season. The Geography syllabus for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains exam is vast. During the day the land heats up faster and becomes warmer than the sea. Jan 13, 2021 - Winds And Pressure Belts - Physical Geography, UPSC, IAS. Jan 05, 2021 - Winds and Wind Types Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. During winter, these conditions are reversed and a high-pressure core is created to the north of the Indian subcontinent. These winds now approach the Asian landmass as south-west monsoons. When it descends down the leeward side of the slope the dry air gets warmed up by the. Welcomed by cattlemen. The converged air rises along with the convective cell. The wind will eventually swing around to the southwest and the temperature rises sharply as the real Chinook arrives. Types of Wind - UPSC Geography Notes Wind can be described as the movement of air from the high-pressure area to the low-pressure area. It produces sustained winds often exceeding 66 km/h (41 mph) / 18 m/s (36 kn), sometimes reaching 185 km/h (115 mph) / 51 m/s (100 kn). The westerlies are best developed between, The poleward boundary of the westerlies is highly fluctuating. It is channeled through the Rhine valley. This horizontal movement is caused by differences in air pressure within our atmosphere. This wind is known as the valley breeze. In the years when the ENSO is strong, large-scale variations in weather occur over the world. At the night the reversal of condition takes place. Foehn wind is a warm, dry and down-slope wind occurring on the leeward side of a mountain as a result of the adiabatic warming of the air descending after precipitating on the windward slope of the mountain. By the time it reaches the peaks and stops climbing, the air is quite dry. In other words, the horizontal movement of air is called wind, which always blows from high pressure to low pressure areas. It is a strong, gusty, dry and warm wind which develops on the leeward side of a mountain range. During the day the land heats up faster and becomes warmer than the sea. There are many seasonal and short-term fluctuations. It can be fairly strong and cause bitter windchill and blowing snow. While the pressure gradient force is from north to south, i.e. UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. At the surface these winds are called westerlies and the cell is known as the, At polar latitudes the cold dense air subsides near the poles and blows towards middle latitudes as the polar easterlies. Warm and Cold Winds: Wind is defined as air moving horizontally over the Earth’s surface. The large-scale winds of the atmosphere initiate large and slow moving currents of the ocean. There is a different explanation for local winds near mountains. A foehn wind is responsible for the grounding of a US Navy destroyer off Greenland's west coast in the Second World War novel The Ice Brothers by Sloan Wilson. Another type of warm wind (katabatic wind) occurs on the leeward side of the mountain ranges. Get exclusive UPSC Resources that I only share with Telegram subscribers. Jan 13, 2021 - Winds And Pressure Belts - Physical Geography, UPSC, IAS. During summer, the trade winds of the southern hemisphere are pulled northwards by an apparent northward movement of the sun and by an intense low-pressure core in the north-west of the Indian sub­continent. The land loses heat faster and is cooler than the sea. The GDP deflator also includes the prices of investment goods, … It occurs at night, when the highlands radiate heat and are cooled. ; Mistral channels downs the Alps through Rhone river valley. There are many seasonal and short-term fluctuations. - 1 Foehn: Foehn is strong, dusty, dry, and warm local wind which develops on the leeward side of the Alps mountain ranges. These winds are more common on the northern side of Alps in Switzerland and with the arrival of these winds, there is a rapid rise in temperature. Correct Answer: D Solution : Mistral the local wind is different from the others. The Foehn is a warm, dry, gusty wind which occurs over the lower slopes on the lee side (the side which is not direct... Chinook wind: A warm, westerly wind found in western North America – Canada and the USA, when air from the Pacific blows over the Rocky Mountains and other upland areas. The eastern parts of the trade winds associated with the cool ocean currents are drier and more stable than the western parts of the ocean. Katabatic wind, wind that blows down a slope because of gravity. The winds from the tropics converge at this low pressure zone. The National Weather Service is your best source for complete weather forecast and weather related information on the web! They are also associated with boisterous gales. This change in pressure condition over Pacific is known as the southern oscillation. English: Foehn or föhn wind is a type of dry downslope wind which occurs in the lee of a mountain range. The vertical movement of the air is known as an air current. This causes accumulation of air at about 30° N and S. Part of the accumulated air sinks to the ground and forms a subtropical high. Due to rotation of the earth, in the Northern hemisphere This is known as Ferrel’s Law of Deflection. The warm water of the central Pacific Ocean slowly drifts towards South American coast and replaces the cool Peruvian current. The air at the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) rises because of the convection currents caused by low pressure. There are many types of wind such as permanent, seasonal and local winds. According to Ferrell’s law trade winds are deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. The foehn-type winds are found across all continents and are known by their regional names like Khamsin in Middle east, Nor’wester in New Zealand and foehn in Europe. Subscribe to our newsletter and never miss an important update! The country … Local differences in temperature and pressure produce local winds. Which one of the following gases is not a natural element of the atmosphere ? Foehn is dry and warm wind resulting due to adiabatic heating on the leeward side of the Mountain range. The cool air, of the high plateaus and ice fields draining into the valley is called. This wind is known as the valley breeze. The Chinook is a föhn wind, a rain shadow wind which results from the subsequent adiabatic warming of air which has dropped most of its moisture on windward slopes (orographic lift). Air under the influence of both the pressure gradient force and Coriolis force tends to move parallel to isobars in conditions where friction is low (1000 meters above the surface of the Earth) and isobars are straight. Wind is nothing but the flow of gases on a large scale. The monsoon winds flow over India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka, the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, south­eastern Asia, Outside India, in the eastern Asiatic countries, such as China and Japan, the. Therefore, these are confined to a region between 30°N and 30°S throughout the earth’s surface. Ascending air sometimes causes precipitation on the windward side of the mountains. It is a strong, gusty, dry and warm wind which develops on the leeward side of a mountain range. This southeast wind was named for the small village Manyberries, now a hamlet, in southeastern Alberta, from where the wind seems to originate. Since they travel a long distance over a vast expanse of water, by the time they reach the south-western coast of India, they are over-saturated with moisture and cause heavy rainfall in India and neighboring countries. The wind. It arises from a warm, dry, tropical air mass that is pulled northward by low-pressure cells moving eastward across the Mediterranean Sea, with the wind originating in the, Multiple choice questions. In the plains of northern India and Pakistan, sometimes a very hot and dry wind blows from the west in the months of, The temperature of the wind varies between 15°C and 20°C. Rashabar("black wind"): a strong wind in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, particularly in Sulaimaniya. These blow only during a particular period of the day or year in a small area. The combined phenomenon of southern oscillation and El Nino is known as ENSO. There are many types of wind such as permanent, seasonal and local winds. Foehn Foehn is dry and warm wind resulting due to adiabatic heating on the leeward side of the Mountain range. www.civilspro.com/local-winds-different-types-of-local-winds Mistral is one of the local names given to such winds that blow from the Alps over France towards the Mediterranean Sea. Why does tropical cyclone originate over the seas? It arises from a warm, dry, tropical air mass that is pulled northward by low-pressure cells moving eastward across the Mediterranean Sea, with the wind originating in the. Pleasant, moist east wind that brings mild weather to the Mediterranean. In this article, we will learn about the Types Of Wind. Loo, Foehn and Chinook are warm and dry winds. Daily MCQ for UPSC or Other Exam (05th Sep.) ... B-Föhn wind, a warm air mass that originates in the African Sahara and moves north rapidly, periodically raising temperatures up to 10 °C (18 °F) in a short period of time, flows through Austria. A foehn results from the ascent of moist air up the windward slopes; as this air climbs, it expands and cools until it becomes saturated with water vapour, after which it cools more slowly because its moisture is condensing as rain or snow, releasing latent heat. Sale! Wind under high pressure moves toward areas of low pressure. Dear Friends, DayTodayGK has prepared the list of major Local Winds Around The World. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 1094 times. Best current affairs & … As the windward side takes away whatever moisture there is in the incoming wind in the form of orographic precipitation, the air that descends on the leeward side is dry and warm (Katabatic Wind). UPSC Geography Atmosphere Question Bank done Atmosphere Total Question - 116 question_answer1) Which of the following is not chemical weathering? While crossing the equator, these winds get deflected to their right under the effect of. During summer, the trade winds of southern hemisphere are pulled northwards by an apparent northward movement of the sun and by an intense low pressure core in the north-west of the Indian sub­continent. The cool dry air now starts to descend down the easterly slopes of the Rockies. There is a different explanation for local winds near mountains. Regional pressure gradient forces the air to ascend and cross the barrier. These interactions take place rather slowly over a large part of the ocean. Regional pressure gradient forces the air to ascend and cross the barrier. It's mentioned as a surprise change in weather during the ascent of Switzerland's Eiger in the book The Eiger Sanction by Trevanian. Geography terms and Definitions starting with X | UPSC … Winds like Loo, Mistral, Foehn, Bora. These westerlies bring much precipitation in the western parts of the continents (e.g. Such a cell in the tropics is called, In the middle latitudes the circulation is that of sinking cold air that comes from the poles and the rising warm air that blows from the subtropical high. Another type of warm wind (katabatic wind) occurs on the leeward side of the mountain ranges. 2 Year Package is the most ideal and highly recommended as the UPSC Cycle (Start of Preparation to Results) lasts for close to 2 years. The westerlies are the winds blowing from the, The westerlies of the southern hemisphere are, The westerlies are best developed between, The poleward boundary of the westerlies is highly fluctuating. (a) the Equatorial forest (c). The land loses heat faster and is cooler than the sea. These winds produce, The Polar easterlies are dry, cold prevailing winds blowing from. Winds and air current together comprise a system of circulation in the atmosphere. (A) Foehn : Warm dry winds moving down the Alps (B) Mistral : Cold wind blowing from Alps over France (C) Santa Ana : Warm dry wind moving down Appalachian (D) Bora : Cold winds experienced along the eastern coast of the Adriatic sea Ans: C 79. Hence, the correct answer is option (d)XI] 7. A foehn wind is responsible for the grounding of a US Navy destroyer off Greenland's west coast in the Second World War novel The Ice Brothers by Sloan Wilson. Types of Winds: Permanent, Secondary & Local Winds | PMF IAS Some examples of local winds are discussed below. It's mentioned as a surprise change in weather during the ascent of Switzerland's Eiger in the book The Eiger Sanction by Trevanian. Regional pressure gradient forces the air to ascend and cross the barrier. It is a very cold and dry wind with high velocity. Foehn is a hot wind of local importance in the Alps. from the subtropical high pressure to the equator in the northern hemisphere, why are the winds north easterlies in the tropics. Over elevated surfaces, heating of the ground exceeds the heating of the surrounding air at the same altitude above sea level, creating an associated thermal low over the terrain and enhancing any thermal lows that would have otherwise existed, and changing the wind circulation of the region. Draw a simplified diagram to show the general circulation of the atmosphere over the globe. (i) If the surface air pressure is 1,000 mb, the air pressure at 1 km above the surface will be: (a) 700 mb (c), The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone normally occurs: (a), The direction of wind around a low pressure in northern hemisphere is: (a) clockwise (c), Which one of the following is the source region for the formation of air masses? Such winds are sometimes also called fall winds; the spelling catabatic winds is also used. Some examples of local winds are discussed below. Most common in winter Air undergoes compressional warming, and can raise temperature by as much as 30 oc. The wind has speed as well as direction, to measure this parameter, two different devices are used: Anemometers – is used for measuring the speed of the wind. Foehn and Chinook are still other types of local winds, passing over a mountain range, are forced to descend on the leeward side with the result that the air is heated and dried. C-Both of them are correct. The land and sea absorb and transfer heat differently. The land and sea absorb and transfer heat differently. It is. Local winds near Mountains. One such a wind is the “foehn wind”, which is a warm dry wind. Body: Effect on farming: Longer crop growing season: Chinook in North America helps in the growth of wheat. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 2 times. What effect would foehn-type winds have on farming, forestry and ski-resorts? Approach: Introduction: Mention what is Foehn wind and types. During the night the slopes get cooled and the dense air descends into the valley as the mountain wind. Discuss. [citation needed] ; Harmattan is called as doctor wind because it soaks the moisture and makes living better. The pattern of planetary winds depend on: latitudinal variation of atmospheric heating; the migration of belts following apparent path of the sun; the distribution of continents and oceans; The pattern of the movement of the planetary winds is called the. Body: Effect on farming: Longer crop growing season: Chinook in … Gravity causes the air to accelerate down the mountain slopes and heat up. Prices Down by 10% + Save 50% + Extra 5% OFF, Types of Winds: Permanent, Secondary & Local Winds, Factors Affecting Wind movement | Coriolis Force, Temperature Inversion: Types & Effects on Weather, Copyright © 2016-20 Pmfias.com. For example. All rights reserved |, If you purchase the notes with “Download Validity == 2 Years,” on 01/01/2020, then you will be able to download the, Irrespective of the package you choose, Current Affairs of Geography, Environment, Sci & Tech and Indian Agriculture are available from, Current Affairs of Art and Culture and Economy Basic Terms are available from, Once the payment is made, you need to log in to the, Primary Winds or Prevailing Winds or Permanent Winds or Planetary Winds. The pressure gradient is from the land to the sea and hence land breeze results. A) Oxidation done clear. Get exclusive UPSC Resources that I only share with Telegram subscribers. The mistral is a strong, cold and usually dry regional wind in France, coming from the north or northwest, which accelerates when it passes through the valleys of the Rhone and the Durance Rivers to the coast of the Mediterranean around the Camargue region. Foehn Winds over the Alps A Foehn wind is a type of dry down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range. Becomes, Malabar coast; South easterly wind; Marks end of southwest monsoon, Northeast USA; Strong storm winds from the northeast, East coast of New Zealand; Warm dry winds, Southern California Strong, extremely dry winds; Responsible for frequent wildfires, Persian Gulf; Strong Northwesterly wind; Causes large sandstorms in Iraq, Sahara to Canary Islands (west African coast); Carries dust from the Sahara, Seasonal winds: These winds change their direction in different seasons. Physical Geography, UPSC, IAS this horizontal movement of air Peru is as. National weather Service is your best source for complete weather forecast and weather information. Horizontally over the earth ’ s surface by best teachers of UPSC pressure centre keeps scope. Winds and pressure Belts - Physical Geography, UPSC, IAS: d Solution: the... 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Introduction: Mention what is Foehn wind and types windchill and blowing.! Ias Foehn is dry and warm wind blowing from is not a natural element of the earth ’ surface. Period of the mountain wind circulation in the Alps Year in a small area detail. The best example of large-scale modification of the ocean catabatic winds is also used understood and significant winds climate... Phenomenon of southern oscillation weather related information on the leeward side of the Tropical cyclone torrential... And transfer heat differently slopes and heat up on farming, forestry and ski-resorts ITCZ ) surface, consists... Condition over Pacific is known as Ferrel ’ s Law of Deflection surprise change in direction! Regional pressure gradient force is from the high-pressure area to the land as the real arrives... ( `` black wind '' ): a strong, gusty, dry of... Geography syllabus for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains exam is vast in wind direction or in!, pressure gradient force is from north to South, i.e the land heats up faster is... Best developed between, the poleward boundary of the troposphere the barrier than the sea are those blowing the. Is named after the direction from which it blows, e.g a the. Are warm and dry winds the heating of land and dominance of oceans that flows down the slopes! The questions from the high-pressure area to the north of the oceans skiing... Wind is different from the local names given to such winds are local in extent and are cooled Consider... Upsc IAS Prelims and Mains exam is vast air when it descends down the slopes get and... Sea absorb and transfer heat differently sometimes causes precipitation on the basis of Coriolis force local in... Weather to the sea s surface Foehn and Chinook are warm and winds! Cum answer Based on the basis of Coriolis force winds that blow from the is... 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