burrowing owls [Athene cunicularia] and rattlesnakes [Crotalus sp. Plant and shrub cover around the site is also an important component (Nicholson and Rose 2001; Poulin and Didiuk 2008). During a follow-up survey of dens in Saskatchewan, hibernacula that were used by many snakes (of multiple species) in 1987 generally continued to support relatively large populations of snakes in 1990-91, while dens containing few snakes in 1987 also had few snakes in 1990-91 (Macartney and Weichel 1993). Rose (2001) suggested that agricultural practices may be affecting rodent populations that snakes depend on as prey and for creation of burrows for refuge and hibernation. Many of their prey can also be found in dry grasslands and chaparrals. During his master’s research he investigated the movement ecology and road mortality risk of Prairie Rattlesnakes and Bullsnakes in southeastern Alberta. Solid and half-solid circles = museum specimens, literature reports, and personal observations/collections by G. Pendlebury, circles with white dot and circles with cross = occurrences reported to G. Pendlebury and occurrences reported to sources other than G. Pendlebury, open circles = negative occurrences reported to G. Pendlebury. comm. 34: 6,773 vehicles per day; County of Essex 2014) were genetically different, providing evidence that the highway was a barrier to gene flow. They found that most people living in proximity to the species would only consider harming rattlesnakes if they were encountered around homes and farm buildings and when they felt their safety or safety of livestock was threatened. 200. Although rescue (i.e., the establishment of new hibernacula in Canada by snakes originating in the U.S.) is possible, it would likely occur at a low or very low rate, and would be localized to areas close to the Canada-U.S. border. 2013. As a result, an attempt was made here to update the Saskatchewan abundance estimates originally presented by Macartney and Weichel (1993) using two approaches. Population status and biology of the Prairie Rattlesnake and other reptile species in southwest Saskatchewan, 1990 - 1991. For example, overall loss of native grassland in the Canadian prairies occurred at a rate of ~ 0.44% per year from 1985 - 2000 due to the expansion of tillage (Alberta NAWMP Partnership 2008). Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Edmonton, AB. The Prairie Rattlesnake is a heavy-bodied pit viper. Potential prey also leave specific hormones and chemicals behind that can be easily detected as a scent to prairie rattlesnakes. Unpublished data. Contemporary estimates of extent of occurrence (EOO) and index area of occupancy (IAO) for the Prairie Rattlesnake in Canada were calculated by the COSEWIC Secretariat in 2014, based on occurrence data from the previous 20 year period (1994-2013; Appendix 1). The Wildlife Habitat Protection Act. To detect if there are prey or predators in the area, prairie rattlesnakes use tongue flicking to pick up on chemical cues left behind. 7 pp. Miller, V., pers. Estimates exclude two recent observations from Drumheller not yet vouched by professionals (see Canadian Range). For example, in a population genetics study of the Eastern Foxsnake (Pantherophis gloydii)in Southwestern Ontario, Row et al. In addition to contributing to direct mortality and population declines, roads may also act as complete dispersal barriers for Prairie Rattlesnakes. comm. The result is that Prairie Rattlesnake populations in Canada are dominated by older age classes for the majority of the active season (Macartney and Weichel 1993; Didiuk 2003; Gushulak pers. Image used with permission. 2008; Powell et al. At least two of the 230 locations have been identified as being threatened by residential development. They are also in the northern part of Chihuahua, Mexico. A historical range decline in Canada is presumed; however, over the last 40 years the known range of the species has remained relatively stable. 1996. Alberta Parks: Find a Park. Queen's Printer. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 8/1: 240-250. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T64339A12771847. Government of Alberta. Rats, cities, people, and pathogens: A systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers. The bimodal migratory behaviour of Prairie Rattlesnakes is conducive to creating links between subpopulations both across the prairie uplands and along riparian corridors. 2012. Urbanization may also isolate remnant urban or near-urban populations of Prairie Rattlesnakes from each other due to avoidance of unsuitable habitat and heightened mortality risk. Several behaviours render the Prairie Rattlesnake vulnerable to human-induced threats. Guidelines for Recognizing Designatable Units. APPENDIX F1: Instructions for the Preparation of COSEWIC Status Reports. Proctor, M., C. L. Lausen, E. Hofman, J. Boulanger and J. Nicholson. The Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC) owns or has conservation easements on approximately 80 km2 of land in southwestern Saskatchewan; however, it is unknown what portion, if any, of this land is occupied by Prairie Rattlesnakes (Gross pers. Also, Andrus (2010) found Prairie Rattlesnakes used agricultural areas less than predicted in Lethbridge; however, all snakes in this study were short-distance migrants. Source: Nature Serve (2013). The eggs are buried in sand, soil, or whatever surroundings there are to account for incubation within the egg. Naugle, C. A. Paszkowski and D. W. Coltman. Prairie Rattlesnakes were significantly more likely to be killed on roads relative to three other snake species (Bullsnake, Wandering Gartersnake and Plains Gartersnake), near Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta (Martinson 2009b). No confidence intervals were provided. B. Iverson, F. Kraus, R. W. McDiarmid, J.R. Mendelson III, P. A. Meylan, R.A. Pyron, T. W. Reeder, M. E. Seidel, S.G. Tilley and D. B. Nernberg, D., pers. For example, a proposal to double the number of shallow gas wells within the Suffield National Wildlife Area was denied in November 2012 by the federal Minister of the Environment (CEAA 2013). The Influence of female reproductive status on thermoregulation in a viviparous snake, Crotalus viridis. comm. 2010. Molecular systematics of the Western Rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis (Viperidae), with comments on the utility of the D-loop in phylogenetic studies of snakes. Long-term shifts in snake populations: a California site revisited. Membranous ventricular septal aneurysm in a black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). These include: 1) seasonal congregations at overwintering sites and gestation sites, 2) high site fidelity to hibernacula and gestation sites, 3) long-distance migrations between overwintering and foraging grounds, 4) high fidelity to seasonal migration routes, and 5) conspicuous defensive behaviours. Martinson, A. 2013. This would represent at least 1% of the total number of Canadian locations. forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality. During this period, the males seek out the females to reproduce. (1996) increased that number to 12 (assuming that all but one of the dens in their study was previously reported). Furthermore, ‘percent bush cover’ and ‘proximity to holes’ were habitat variables that were positively associated with snake use (Gardiner 2012). Many of the remaining grasslands in the Grasslands Natural Region of Alberta and Saskatchewan have become increasingly degraded and/or isolated into smaller patches. Molecular Ecology 2010(19): 5345 – 5358. Principal Scientist, Ecosystems and Forestry, Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. COSEWIC Secretariat c/o Canadian Wildlife Service Environment Canada Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Tel. The Prairie Rattlesnake is a heavy-bodied pit viper that is generally tan in colour, with darker bands or blotches along its back and anterior dark tail rings which are usually olive to brown (Figure 1; Klauber 1997). Program Officer, World Wildlife Fund, Bozeman, MT, USA. 2013. Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Charland, B. M. 1988. COSEWIC comprises members from each provincial and territorial government wildlife agency, four federal entities (Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Federal Biodiversity Information Partnership, chaired by the Canadian Museum of Nature), three non-government science members and the co-chairs of the species specialist subcommittees and the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge subcommittee. Interim Report. Still divisive, APAS calls for delay in transfer grassland following pipeline disturbance in southwestern Saskatchewan is... Roads and railroadsHousing and urban areasAnnual and perennial non-timber cropsOil and gas drillingHunting and collecting sites! Royal Saskatchewan Museum, Regina, SK sites difficult and ACA 2012 ) ventral. Litters, prairie rattlesnake role in ecosystem, etc. ) Beaman, M. D. 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